Xylose India is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it. Xylose is classified as a monosaccharide of the aldopentose type, which means that it contains five carbon atoms and includes a formyl functional group.
Molar mass: 150.13 g/mol
Density: 1.52 g/cm³
The acid-catalysed degradation of hemicellulose gives furfural, a specialty solvent in industry and a precursor to synthetic polymers.
Xylose India is metabolised by humans, though it is not a major human nutrient and largely excreted by the kidneys. Humans must obtain xylose from their diet. An oxido-reductase pathway is present in eukaryotic microorganisms. Humans have an enzyme called xylosyltransferase, which transfers xylose from UDP to a serine in the core protein of proteoglycans.
In animal medicine, xylose is used to test for malabsorption by administration in water to the patient after fasting. If xylose is detected in blood and/or urine within the next few hours, it has been absorbed by the intestines. Reduction of xylose india by catalytic hydrogenation produces the non-cariogenic sugar substitute xylitol.
In 2014 a low-temperature 50 °C (122 °F), atmospheric-pressure enzyme-driven process to convert xylose into hydrogen with nearly 100% of the theoretical yield was announced. The process employs 13 enzymes, including a novel polyphosphate xylulokinase (XK).
Xylose is the main building block for the hemicellulose xylan, which comprises about 30% of some plants (birch for example), far less in others (spruce and pine have about 9% xylan). Xylose is otherwise pervasive, being found in the embryos of most edible plants. It was first isolated from wood by Koch in 1881.
Xylose is also the first saccharide added to the serine or threonine in the proteoglycan type O-glycosylation, and, so, it is the first saccharide in biosynthetic pathways of most anionic polysaccharides such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate.
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